Wednesday, 25 March 2020

hantavirus signs and symptoms

hantavirus signs


Hantaviruses are a family of viruses spread mainly by rodents and may cause varied disease syndromes in people worldwide. Infection with any hantavirus can produce hantavirus disease in people. Hantaviruses within the Americas are referred to as “New World” hantaviruses and should cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

Other hantaviruses referred to as “Old World” hantaviruses, are found mostly in Europe and Asia and may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

Each hantavirus serotype features a specific rodent host species and is spread to people via an aerosolized virus that's shed in urine, feces, and saliva, and fewer frequently by a bite from an infected host. The most important hantavirus within us which will cause HPS is that the Sin Nombre virus, spread by the Peromyscus maniculatus.

Rodents in the United States that Carry Hantavirus

Rodents

The Sigmodon hispidus (Sigmodon hispidus), found within the southeastern US and down into Central and South America features a bigger body than the Peromyscus maniculatus. The head and body measure approximately 5 – 7 inches (12.5cm – 18cm), with another 3 – 4 inches (7.5cm – 10cm) for the tail. The fur is longer and coarser, grayish-brown, even grayish-black, in color. The hantavirus strain present in the cotton rat is the Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV). The Sigmodon hispidus inhabits overgrown areas with shrubs and tall grasses.
Cotton Rat Habitat in North America
The Sigmodon hispidus is found within the southeastern US and down into Central and South America. It inhabits overgrown areas with shrubs and tall grasses.

Reported Cases of Hantavirus Disease

Hantavirus Infection in the United States

Hantavirus disease surveillance within us began in 1993 during an epidemic of severe respiratory disease within the Four Corners region. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) became a nationally notifiable disease in 1995 and is now reported through the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System ( NNDSS) when fever is present in a patient with laboratory-confirmed evidence of hantavirus infection.

In 2014, the Council of State & Territorial Epidemiologists expanded the national reporting of laboratory-confirmed hantavirus infections to incorporate HPS and non-pulmonary hantavirus infection. The reporting of non-pulmonary hantavirus cases began in 2015.

how dangerous is hantavirus?

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) may be a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory illness in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.

Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses is in danger of HPS. Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the first risk for hantavirus exposure. Even healthy individuals are in danger of HPS infection if exposed to the virus.

To date, no cases of HPS are reported within us during which the virus was transmitted from one person to a different. In fact, during a study of health care workers who were exposed to either patients or specimens infected with related sorts of hantaviruses (which cause a special disease in humans), none of the workers showed evidence of infection or illness.

In Chile and Argentina, rare cases of person-to-person transmission have occurred among close contacts of an individual who was ill with a kind of hantavirus called Andes virus.

What are the first symptoms of hantavirus?

Early symptoms include fatigue, fever, and muscle aches, especially within the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders. These symptoms are universal. There can also be headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems, like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

How long can you live with hantavirus?

It causes a rare but serious lung disease called Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The virus doesn't remain active for long once outside of its host -- but 1 week outdoors and a couple of hours when exposed to direct sunlight.

How dangerous is hantavirus?

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) may be a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory illness in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses. Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses is in danger of HPS. Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the first risk for hantavirus exposure.

Where is hantavirus most common?

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is common in rural areas of the western us during the spring and summer months. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome also occurs in South America and Canada.
Other hantaviruses occur in Asia, where they cause kidney disorders instead of lung problems

What does hantavirus look like?

Fever greater than 101◦F, chills, body aches, headaches. Nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain. New rash (faint red spots) A dry cough followed by the rapid onset of breathing difficulty.

How is hantavirus diagnose?

Doctors diagnose hantavirus with several tests. Blood tests identify proteins (antibodies) related to the virus. Blood tests also can reveal signs of the disease. These signs may include larger-than-normal white blood cells and an abnormally low amount of platelets (a substance that helps blood clot)

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