Wednesday, 25 March 2020

hantavirus signs and symptoms

hantavirus signs

Hantaviruses are a family of viruses spread mainly by rodents and may cause varied disease syndromes in people worldwide. Infection with any hantavirus can produce hantavirus disease in people.

Hantaviruses within the Americas are referred to as “New World” hantaviruses and should cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

Other hantaviruses referred to as “Old World” hantaviruses, are found mostly in Europe and Asia and may cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

Each hantavirus serotype features a specific rodent host species and is spread to people via an aerosolized virus that's shed in urine, feces, and saliva, and fewer frequently by a bite from an infected host.

The most important hantavirus within us which will cause HPS is that the Sin Nombre virus, spread by the Peromyscus maniculatus.

Rodents in the United States that Carry Hantavirus

Rodents

The Sigmodon hispidus (Sigmodon hispidus), found within the southeastern US and down into Central and South America features a bigger body than the Peromyscus maniculatus.

The head and body measure approximately 5 – 7 inches (12.5cm – 18cm), with another 3 – 4 inches (7.5cm – 10cm) for the tail.

The fur is longer and coarser, grayish-brown, even grayish-black, in color.

The hantavirus strain present in the cotton rat is the Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV).

The Sigmodon hispidus inhabits overgrown areas with shrubs and tall grasses.

Cotton Rat Habitat in North America The Sigmodon hispidus is found within the southeastern US and down into Central and South America.

It inhabits overgrown areas with shrubs and tall grasses.

Reported Cases of Hantavirus Disease

Hantavirus Infection in the United States

Hantavirus disease surveillance within us began in 1993 during an epidemic of severe respiratory disease within the Four Corners region.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) became a nationally notifiable disease in 1995 and is now reported through the Nationally Notifiable Disease Surveillance System ( NNDSS) when fever is present in a patient with laboratory-confirmed evidence of hantavirus infection.

In 2014, the Council of State & Territorial Epidemiologists expanded the national reporting of laboratory-confirmed hantavirus infections to incorporate HPS and non-pulmonary hantavirus infection.

The reporting of non-pulmonary hantavirus cases began in 2015.

how dangerous is hantavirus?

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) may be a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory illness in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.

Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses is in danger of HPS.

Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the first risk for hantavirus exposure.

Even healthy individuals are in danger of HPS infection if exposed to the virus.

To date, no cases of HPS are reported within us during which the virus was transmitted from one person to a different.

In fact, during a study of health care workers who were exposed to either patients or specimens infected with related sorts of hantaviruses (which cause a special disease in humans), none of the workers showed evidence of infection or illness.

In Chile and Argentina, rare cases of person-to-person transmission have occurred among close contacts of an individual who was ill with a kind of hantavirus called Andes virus.

What are the first symptoms of hantavirus?

Early symptoms include fatigue, fever, and muscle aches, especially within the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders.

These symptoms are universal.

There can also be headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems, like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

How long can you live with hantavirus?

It causes a rare but serious lung disease called Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

The virus doesn't remain active for long once outside of its host -- but 1 week outdoors and a couple of hours when exposed to direct sunlight.

How dangerous is hantavirus?

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) may be a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory illness in humans caused by infection with hantaviruses.

Anyone who comes into contact with rodents that carry hantaviruses are in danger of HPS.

Rodent infestation in and around the home remains the first risk for hantavirus exposure.

Where is hantavirus most common?

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is common in rural areas of the western us during the spring and summer months.

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome also occurs in South America and Canada.

Other hantaviruses occur in Asia, where they cause kidney disorders instead of lung problems

What does hantavirus look like?

Fever greater than 101◦F, chills, body aches, headaches. Nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain.

New rash (faint red spots) A dry cough followed by the rapid onset of breathing difficulty.

How is hantavirus diagnose?

Doctors diagnose hantavirus with several tests.

Blood tests identify proteins (antibodies) related to the virus.

Blood tests also can reveal signs of the disease.

These signs may include larger-than-normal white blood cells and an abnormally low amount of platelets (a substance that helps blood clot)

Saturday, 14 March 2020

What is corona-virus?


Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that will cause illnesses like the cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and therefore the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

In 2019, a replacement coronavirus was identified because of the explanation for a disease outbreak in China.

The virus is now referred to as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2).

The disease it causes is named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Cases of COVID-19 are reported during a growing number of nations, including the U.S. Public health groups, like the planet Health Organization (WHO) and therefore the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are monitoring things and posting updates on their websites.

These groups have also issued recommendations for preventing and treating the illness.

What are the symptoms?

Signs and symptoms of COVID-19 may appear two to 14 days after exposure and may
include
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe.

People who are older or have existing medical conditions, like a heart condition, could also be at higher risk of serious illness.

This is almost like what's seen with other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza.

When to see a doctor?


Contact your doctor directly if you've got COVID-19 symptoms and you have possibly been
exposed to the virus.

Tell your doctor if you've recently traveled internationally.

Call your doctor ahead to inform him or her about your symptoms and up to date travels and possible exposure before you go to your appointment.

Causes

It's unclear exactly how contagious the new coronavirus is.

It appears to be spreading from person to person among those in close contact.

It may be spread by respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs or sneezes.

Risk factors

Risk factors for COVID-19 appear to include:
  1. Recent travel from or residence in an area with the ongoing spread of COVID-19 as determined by the CDC or WHO
  2. Close contact with someone who has COVID-19 — like when a loved one or health care worker takes care of an infected person
Prevention

Although there's no vaccine available to stop infection with the new coronavirus, you can take steps to scale back your risk of infection.

WHO and CDC recommend following the standard precautions for avoiding respiratory viruses:
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Cover your mouth and nose together with your elbow or tissue once you cough or sneeze.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth if your hands aren't clean.
  • Avoid close contact with anyone who is sick.
  • Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding, and other home items if you're sick.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces you often touch.
  • Stay home from work, school, and public areas if you're sick.
CDC doesn't recommend that healthy people wear a facemask to guard themselves against
respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19. Only wear a mask if a health care provider tells
you to do so.

WHO also recommends that you:

Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat or animal organs.
Avoid contact with live animals and surfaces they'll have touched if you're visiting
live markets in areas that have recently had new coronavirus cases.


Travel

If you're getting to travel internationally, first check the CDC and WHO websites for updates and advice.

Also, look for any health advisories that may be in the place where you plan to travel.

You may also want to speak together with your doctor if you've got health conditions that make you more susceptible to respiratory infections and complications.